- a. Study of the relationships of organisms to their physical environment and to one another called bionics.
b. The study of an individual organism or a single species is termed autecology;
c. The study of groups of organisms is called synecology.
- a. The study of the relationships between human groups and their physical and social environments, called human ecology.
b. The study of the detrimental effects of modern civilization on the environment, with a view toward prevention or reversal through conservation. Also called human ecology.
- Population ecology is the study of processes that affect the distribution and abundance of animal and plant populations.
- Community ecology studies how communities of plant and animal populations function and are organized.
- Ecosystem ecology examines large-scale ecological issues, ones that often are framed in terms of measures such as biomass, energy flow, and nutrient cycling.
- Applied ecology applies ecological principles to the management of populations of crops and animals.
- Theoretical ecologists provide simulations of particular practical problems and develop models of general ecological relevance.
Ecology is concerned with patterns of distribution (where organisms occur) and with patterns of abundance (how many organisms occur) in space and time. It seeks to explain the factors that determine the range of environments that organisms occupy and that determine how abundant organisms are within those ranges. It also emphasizes functional interactions between co-occurring organisms. In addition to being a unique component of the biological sciences, ecology is both a synthetic and an integrative science since it often draws upon information and concepts in other sciences, ranging from physiology to meteorology, to explain the complex organization of nature.